Amylases are the hydrolytic enzymes which catalysis the hydrolysis of starch in to low molecular weight sugar molecules. In nature starch is most abundant polysaccharide food store after cellulose and it is used in many industries.
It also called as Protease or proteinase that performs proteolysis. Major sources of proteases are animal, plant and microbial including fungi and bacteria. Protease conducts proteolysis, that is, begins protein catabolism by hydrolysis of the peptide bonds that link amino acids together in the polypeptide chain forming the protein. Proteases are a unique class of enzymes as they possess both degradative and synthetic properties. They is widely used as detergent, in food, pharmaceutical and leather tanning industries.
Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase) are part of the family of hydrolyses that act on carboxylic ester bonds. The physiologic role of lipases is to hydrolyze triglycerides into diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol. These enzymes are widely found throughout the animal and plant kingdoms, as well as in molds and bacteria. In addition to their natural function of hydrolyzing carboxylic ester bonds, lipases can catalyze esterification, interesterification, and transesterification reactions in nonaqueous media. This versatility makes lipases the enzymes of choice for potential applications in the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, leather, textile, cosmetic, and paper industries. The most significant industrial applications of lipases have been mainly found in the food, detergent, and pharmaceutical sectors.
Cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule on the Earth and is the primary structural component of plants. It is fibrous, insoluble and high molecular weight homopolymer of anhydrous glucose units linked by the β-1, 4 glycosidic linkages. Cellulase is an enzyme which decomposes r cellulysis the cellulose in to simple monomers and oligomers. Cellulases are inducible enzymes, which are produced by a wide array of microorganisms including fungi and bacteria. Cellulases, solely or in a mixture with other enzymes, are involved in several industries including biofuel, food, feed, beverages, paper, textile, pharmaceutical, agricultural etc.
Xylanase is an enzyme which degrade the linear polysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose, thus breaking down hemicellulose, one of the major components of plant cell walls. Xylanase plays a major role in micro-organisms thriving on plant sources for the degradation of plant matter into usable nutrients. Xylanase can be used in many industries like paper & pulp, Food industry, beverages and it can also give better results combination with other enzymes like Pectinase & cellulase.
Pectinase is an enzyme that breaks down pectin, a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. It is useful because pectin is the jelly-like matrixes which helps cement plant cells together and in which other cell wall components, such as cellulose fibrils, are embedded. Therefore, pectinase enzymes are commonly used in processes involving the degradation of plant materials, such as speeding up the extraction of fruit juice from fruit, including apples, sapota, making of wine etc.
Phytases decompose phytate, which is the primary storage form of phosphate in plants. Phytase offered to help farmers reduce phosphorus excretion of monogastric animals by replacing inorganic phosphates by microbial phytase in the animal diet. Phytase application can reduce phosphorus excretion by up to 50%, a feat that would contribute significantly toward environmental protection. Furthermore, phytase supplementation leads to improved availability of minerals and trace elements. In addition to its major application in animal nutrition, phytase is also used for processing of human food.